B

BACK
The side reverse to the face of a panel, or the poorer side of a panel in any grade of plywood calling for a face and back.

BALANCED MATCHED
Two or more veneer components or leaves of equal size to make up a single face.

BALANCED PANEL
For purposes of this Standard, a balanced panel is one which is free from warp that affects serviceability for its intended use.

BANDING
Portion of wood extending around one or more sides of plywood panels.

BARK POCKET
Comparatively small area of bark around which normal wood has grown.

BLENDING
Color change that is detectable at a distance of 1.8 m to 2.4 m (6 feet to 8 feet) but which does not seriously detract from the overall appearance of the panel.

BOOK MATCH
Adjacent pieces of veneer from a flitch or log are opened like a book and spliced to make up the face with matching occurring at the spliced joints. The fibers of the wood, slanting in opposite directions in the adjacent sheets, create a characteristic light and dark effect when the surface is seen from an angle.

BRASHNESS
Condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt failure across the grain without splintering.

BURL
A swirl, twist or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch. A burl can often be associated with abrupt color variation and/or a cluster of small dark piths caused by a cluster of adventitious buds.

BURL, BLENDING
A swirl, twist or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch but does not contain a knot and does not contain abrupt color variation. A blending burl is detectable at 1.8 m to 2.4 m (6 feet to 8 feet) as a swirl or roundel.

C

CATHEDRAL
A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked and inverted “V” or cathedral type of springwood (earlywood) summerwood (latewood) patterns common in plain-sliced (flat-cut) veneer (see split heart).

CENTERS
Inner layers whose grain direction runs parallel to that of the outer plies. May be of parallel laminated plies.

CENTER MATCH
An even number of veneer components or leaves of equal size matched with a joint in the center of the panel to achieve horizontal symmetry.

CHECKS
Small slits running parallel to grain of wood, caused chiefly by strains produced in seasoning.

COMB GRAIN
A quality of rift cut veneer with exceptionally straight grain and closely spaced growth increments resembling the appearance of long strands of combed hair.

COMPONENT (OF FACE)
An individual piece of veneer that is jointed to other pieces to achieve a full length and width face. Terms used interchangeably with component in the context of the face are piece and leaf.

CORE
The inner part of plywood between face and back, usually veneer; however, it may be of sawed lumber, or it may be particleboard, MDF, hardboard or of some other material.

CORE, BANDED
Core that has been made with banding on one or more sides.

CROSSBANDING
Veneer used in the construction of plywood with five or more plies. Crossbands are placed at eight angles to the grain of the faces and are typically placed adjacent to the face and back. Also refers to all inner layers of veneer whose grain direction runs perpendicular to that of the outer plies and may include parallel laminated plies.

CROSS BAR
Irregularity of grain resembling a dip in the grain running at right angles, or nearly so, to the length of the veneer.

CROSS BREAK
Separation of the wood cells across the grain. Such breaks may be due to internal strains resulting from unequal longitudinal shrinkage or to external forces.

CROSS FIGURE
A series of naturally occurring figure effects characterized by mild or dominant patterns across the grain in some faces. For example, a washboard effect occurs in fiddle-back cross figure; cross wrinkles can occur in the mottle figure.

D

DECAY
The decomposition of wood substance by fungi. The incipient stage is characterized by discoloration, and may be accompanied by a softening of the wood substance. The final or ultimate state is characterized by the partial or complete collapse of the wood structure and the destruction of the wood substance.

DEFECT, OPEN
Checks, splits, open joints, knotholes, cracks, loose knots, wormholes, gaps, voids, or other openings interrupting the smooth continuity of the wood surface.

DELAMINATION
Separation of plies or layers of wood or other material through failure of the adhesive bond.

DISCOLORATIONS
Stains in wood substances. Common veneer stains are sap stains, blue stains, stain produced by chemical action caused by the iron in the cutting knife coming in contact with the tannic acid of the wood, and those resulting from the chemical action of the glue.

DOZE (SYNONYMOUS WITH DOTE)
A form of incipient decay characterized by a dull and lifeless appearance of the wood, accompanied by a loss of strength and softening of the wood substance.

E

EMISSION LEVEL
The formaldehyde concentration in testing wood panel products using ASTM E 1333, Determining Formaldehyde Levels From Wood Products Under Defined Test Conditions Using A Large Chamber.

F